Scientific Program

Day 1 :

  • Bacteriology
Biography:

Ms. Leimapokpam Sumitra Devi is engaged in research on the problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the rural community in India in the scenario of human-animal-environment interface. By virtue of working in a multi-specialty hospital (SGT Hospital) which is a hospital located in the rural belt of North India, she has the unique opportunity of looking into the various sources for acquisition of AMR by the rural community viz. companion livestock, agricultural produce and environment. She is one of the researchers from India to document for the first time the spread of Carbapenem and New Delhi Metallo-Beta-Lactamase-1 (NDM-1) mediated resistance in the rural community in India. She has also carried out in depth investigations on the problem of inappropriate use of antibiotics by the rural community as contributor for development of AMR amongst them. 

Ms. Leimapokpam Sumitra Devi is engaged in research on the problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the rural community in India in the scenario of human-animal-environment interface. By virtue of working in a multi-specialty hospital (SGT Hospital) which is a hospital located in the rural belt of North India, she has the unique opportunity of looking into the various sources for acquisition of AMR by the rural community viz. companion livestock, agricultural produce and environment. She is one of the researchers from India to document for the first time the spread of Carbapenem and New Delhi Metallo-Beta-Lactamase-1 (NDM-1) mediated resistance in the rural community in India. She has also carried out in depth investigations on the problem of inappropriate use of antibiotics by the rural community as contributor for development of AMR amongst them. 

 

Abstract:

 

Statement of the problem: Majority of reports on aquatic reservoir serving as potential source of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are limited to those used for aquaculture treated with antibiotics and detection of antibiotic residues in aquatic animals in such reservoirs. However, there is very little data available on the risk of human subjects exposed to aquatic environment harbouring AMR from sources other than antibiotic treatment. Methodology and theoretical orientation: A study was taken up to assess the prevalence of AMR mediated through Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) and Carbapenemase producing Escherichia coli in earth ponds used for bathing and cleaning of water buffalos (Bubalus bubalis) by the farmers. Similar assessment was carried out in the farmers and buffalos associated with such activity based on intestinal carriage. Molecular analysis was carried out in the ESBL positive isolates to find out the prevalent ESBL types. Findings: Isolation rate of ESBL positive E. coli was highest in samples collected during monsoon season compared to summer and winter although isolation rate was similar from both surface water and pond bed sediment at same point of collection regardless of the season. Isolation rate for ESBL positive E. coli was highest at the point closer to the pond edge compared to that away from the edge and to the soil samples collected near the pond edge. CTX-M was the predominant molecular type prevalent among the ESBL positive isolates. While no Carbapenemase positivity could be detected among E. coli isolated from pond environment or buffalos, small percentage of Carbapenemase producing E. coli could be detected among the farmers sharing same residential premises as that of water buffalos although no association of such resistance could be found with activities related to bathing and cleaning of buffalos. Co-resistance pattern among the ESBL resistant E. coli isolated from farmers were identical among those with or without engagement in bathing and cleaning of buffalos except that for gentamicin, ciprofloxacin and ceftiofur that were found to be more prevalent among the former category of human subjects compared to the later. Conclusion and significance: The study points out that activity related to bathing and cleaning of buffalos in earth ponds could be a potential risk factor for acquisition of AMR bacteria by human subjects from pond environment serving as a reservoir for such organisms.

 

Biography:

Dr. P. Manikandan Ph.D., (MICROBIOLOGY) (2016-2018) at Annamalai University, Annamalainagar. Under working Assistant Professor, Department of Microbiology at K.S.Rangasamy Arts and Science College (Autonomous), Tiruchengode. Under Periyar University Salem, Tamilnadu, India. I have worked in antimicrobial protein for antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and anticancer activity.

Abstract:

Aim: The present study was to analysis of the uropathogenic bacteria in patients were attended TGA Hospital and their antibiotic resistance pattern, in vitro detection of haemolysis virulent factor of uropathogenic.

Material and Methods: All urine samples were tested by the standard microbiological procedure. Kirby-Bauer method used for the Antibiotic Susceptibility Test according to the CLSI guidelines. Commercially available antibiotics were used. Blood Agar used for the detection of haemolysis.

Results: A total of 261 urine samples were included in this study. We isolated a total of 103 positive cultures. 12% of Gram-positive, 83% of Gram-negative bacteria and 3% of Candida fungi. Escherichia coli was the most predominant bacteria (54%) followed by Klebsiella sp (15%), Staphylococcus aureus (12%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12%), Proteus (1%) and fungi Candida (3%). Mostly female patients’ sample were analysed and the inpatient higher majority than the outpatients.

Conclusion: Escherichia coli are the common bacteria to cause of UTI. Nowadays most of the uropathogens are to resistance to the overall antibiotics. This kind of reactions creating the life-threatening of humans.

 

  • Infectious diseases
Biography:

Research interest of Hemraj Nandanwar include Exploitation of Natural Biodiversity for Bioactives, Screening of Synthetic/semi-synthetic chemical library for Drug Targets, Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Drug Resistance.

Abstract:

The burden of antibiotic-resistant superbugs around the world is of earnest concern today. Most of the clinically useful antibiotics are no longer effective against a number of bacterial pathogens. According to CDC and WHO, USA, “ESKAPE” pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter species) along with E. coli are responsible for major hospital-acquired and community infections. There is a sharp decline in the discovery of new antibiotics for these infectious diseases since many decades resulting second leading causes of death worldwide. Most of the time bacteria accumulate co-resistance, coding resistance for multiple drugs, typically on plasmids. Multidrug resistance may also occur by the increased expression of multidrug efflux pumps, extruding a wide range of drugs. In addition, drug transport across the membrane to reach the target is one of the causes of developing drug resistance. So, there is an urgent need of new antibacterial molecules with new therapeutic targets as well as strategies for rejuvenating the old antibiotics against multi-drug resistant pathogens. Our major research focus is on antibiotic-resistance mechanisms, efflux pump inhibitors, discovery and development of new antimicrobials from natural resources, improving antibiotic delivery by cell-penetrating peptides, etc, with special emphasis on infection control caused by EKAPE pathogens to rejuvenate antimicrobial chemotherapy, up to pre-clinical development. Our comprehensive effort is to find out the sustainable solutions against ESKAPE pathogenesis for better health, worldwide.

  • Mycology

Session Introduction

Wafaa Kamal Taia

Alexandria University, Faculty of Science, Botany Department, Alexandria, Egypt

Title: Oral presentation
Biography:

Prof. Dr. Wafaa Kamal Taia, graduated from Alexandria university, Egypt and got her Ph.D. from Reading university, England. Her major field is Botany, Angiosperm taxonomy, Ecotaxonomy and biodiversity. Her main interest is plant taxonomy, allergy, and the effect of environment on the plants. She attained a lot of conferences inside and outside Egypt and has many publications in the above-mentioned items. She is teaching plant taxonomy, Speciation, Angiosperm phylogeny, Palynology, Flora, General Botany and post graduate courses in Alexandria University, Faculty of Science. She had valuable work on the effect of habitats, environmental conditions and sea elevation on the plants. She did many works on allergy, air pollution and causes of environmental disorders. She attained lot off M.Sc. and Ph.D. Juries in Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Spain (MALAGA), as an examiner of the thesis. She has reviewed many scientific papers in her field of interest She published book entitled ′Biodiversity and plant taxonomy: Definition, History and Classification. Lambert Academic Publishing (2017)

 

Abstract:

In this study, pollen grains and fungal spores in the atmosphere of Rosetta, Egypt were studied for one year (August 2015 to July 2016) using a Hirst type volumetric pollen trap. An annual spore index equals to 8023 was recorded during the studied period. An annual pollen index of 1991 grains was obtained with the highest pollen records from February till May. The main pollen taxa are Poaceae, Arecaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae complex, Casuarina, Cupressaceae, Urtica, Pinus, Myrtaceae. A total of eight pollen types with minimum 10-day mean equal to or greater than 0.1 pollen grains/m3 of air are involved to construct an approximate pollen calendar. Fungal spores give maximum records in August 2015, May and July 2016. .Alternaria, Cladosporium, Tilletia, Stemphylium, Chaetomium, Aspergillus/Penicillium-type, Drechslera-type, Mycosphaerella and Epicoccum represent the main spore producers .  Correlation effects between pollen counts and different meteorological parameters (temperature, rainfall and relative humidity) as well as number of allergic patients were investigated. Most of the recorded pollen grains are of allergenic effects. Correlation analysis between spore counts and different meteorological parameters (temperature, rainfall and relative humidity) as well as number of allergic patients were studied. It was obvious that most of the recorded fungal spores have allergenic properties especially from April till August. This study revealed that the air in Rosetta district is polluted and care must be taken in fruit and food storage especially during the summer period.

 

  • Microbial Biofilms

Session Introduction

Bassma H. Elwakil

1Medical Laboratory Technology Department, Faculty of Allied Medical Science, Pharos University in Alexandria, Egypt.

Title: Antimicrobial effect of silver nanoparticles synthesized from some natural sources against microbial biofilm
Biography:

Abstract:

Aim

Green AgNPs were synthesized as anti-biofilm agents using different natural sources as capping agents namely: Acalypha wikesiana, Azardichta indica, Carica papaya and Ocimum basillicum, and natural product sources namely: chitosan, honey, molasses, pollen grains, and starch were tested.

Methods and Results

AgNPs synthesized by honey (Hn-capped AgNPs) and molasses (Mo-capped AgNPs) as reducing agents showed maximum antimicrobial activities against different microorganisms with potential anti-biofilm activity. Statistically designed using response surface methodology were evaluated for maximum antimicrobial activity using Design Expert 11®. Hydrogen ion concentration proved to be the most effective factor for Hn-capped AgNPs. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Hn-capped AgNPs ranged from 2.0 to 32.0 µg ml-1. Minimal biofilm eradication concentration ranged from 4.0 to 32.0 µg ml-1 for Hn-capped AgNPs. Physical properties of the optimally synthesized AgNPs were characterized and it was revealed that Hn-capped AgNPs had average diameter ranged from 13-22 nm. Hn-capped AgNPs showed inhibition activity against biofilm cultures of Candida albicans and MRSA grown within rubber plugs.

Conclusion

In the present study it was found that honey and molasses used as reducing and capping agents, were a good candidate for AgNPs synthesis through green chemistry approach. Hn- and Mo-capped AgNPs succeeded in the prevention of biofilm formation.

Significance and Impact of study

The present study focused on biofilm infection treatment which is one of the major requirements of the medical and industrial community; the green AgNPs synthesized using honey and molasses was able to inhibit and prevent microbial biofilm. It is the first study synthesizing AgNPs using molasses as new reducing and capping agent and providing statistical analysis comparing honey and molasses as reducing agents.

 

Day 2 :

  • Infectious diseases
Biography:

Bijayata Shrestha completed her Masters Degree in Microbiology (Medical) at the age of 28 years from Tribhuwan University, Nepal. She started working in HAMS hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal in 2009 A.D. right after completing her Undergraduate degree in Medical Laboratory Technology (BMLT) from Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, India. She is currently designated as in-charge of Pathology department in the Hospital and her duties and responsibilities include QC analysis, laboratory report authorization and staff duty roster maintenance. Besides, She is also working as a lecturer to PCL Nursing students in HAMS Nursing College since 2010 A.D.

 

Abstract:

Background: Enteric fever is one of the most common diseases encountered worldwide and is endemic in Nepal. This study was conducted to access antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Salmonella isolates from culture positive cases of enteric fever.

Methods: Altogether 505 blood samples were collected from patients clinically suspected of enteric fever attending HAMS Hospital. All blood samples were cultured by BACTEC method and sub cultured in blood agar and MacConkey agar plates. All isolates were identified by colony characteristics, biochemical tests and serotyping methods. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method interpreted with CLSI guideline.

Result: Isolation rate of Salmonella species was 3.6%. Among 18 Salmonella isolates, 10 were S. typhi, 8 were S. paratyphi A. The prevalence rate of infection was high among the age group 11-20 years (50%) and among the male patients. However, there was no significant association of enteric fever with gender of patients (p=2.47). All 18 isolates were sensitive to Amoxycillin, Azithromycin, Ceftriaxone and Chloramphenicol, Ciprofloxacin and Ofloxacin. Majority of isolates were sensitive to Cefixime (94.4%), Cotrimoxazole (94.4%) and Cephotaxime (90%). There were no any MDR isolates. Higher percentage of isolates was resistant to Nalidixic acid (87.5%).

Conclusion: The decreased susceptibility to Fluroquinolones of S. typhi and S. Paratyphi A can be correlated with resistance to Nalidixic acid. Commonly used third generation Cephalosporins and rolled back first line drugs be the choice in case of NARS isolates.

 

  • Industrial Microbiology
Biography:

Dr Chowdhury Mohammad Monirul Hasan has completed his PhD from Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan and postdoctoral studies from University of Kabangsaan Malaysia. He is the professor of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chittagong, Bangladesh. He is interested in medical microbiology, genetics and industrial microbiology. He has published more than 20 research papers in reputed journals

 

Abstract:

The major aims of biology to understanding life at a systems level. Escherichia coli is a metabolically versatile bacterium able to respond to changes in environmental factors availability. The effect of pH downshift on fermentation characteristics was investigated in a continuous culture of Escherichia coli at aerobic and micro-aerobic conditions.  Regardless of oxygen availability, higher levels of acetate were associated with lower biomass yields and lower glucose consumption rates at pH 5.5 as compared to the observations made at pH 7.0. Observed gene expressions indicated that the down- regulation of the glucose uptake rate corresponded to the down-regulation of ptsG gene expression which in turn was caused by the up-regulation of mlc gene under the positive control of Crp. In accordance with up-regulation of arcA gene expression at acidic conditions, the expressions of TCA cycle-related genes such as icdA and gltA, and the respiratory chain gene cyoA were down-regulated, whereas cydB gene expression was up-regulated. Decreased activity of the TCA cycle caused more acetate formation at lower pH levels. Under micro-aerobic condition, higher levels of formate and lactate were produced at lower pH due to up-regulation of pflA, yfiD and ldhA genes. Meanwhile, lower levels of ethanol were produced due to the down-regulation of adhE gene at lower pH, as compared to the observation at neutral pH. The combined effect of pH and temperature on gene expression was also investigated and observed that decreases in the specific glucose consumption rate were associated with increases in the specific acetate production rate. This type of information is useful for the production of recombinant proteins, bio-molecules, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) and strain improvement.

 

Biography:

Dr. Asma Ansari is currently serving as an Assistant Professor at KIBGE University of Karachi, and has twelve years of hands on experience in wet lab. She received degree of Ph.D. from same institute in the field of Biotechnology.  She was awarded Erassmus Mundus postdoctoral fellowship in 2015 from University of Zagreb, Croatia. Dr. Ansari not only involved in teaching but also engaged in goal oriented research in the field of microbiology, biochemistry, biotechnology and recently in bionanotechnology.She has published various research articles in reputed impact factor journals. She is also an author of the chapter published in Microbiology Monograph, Springer.and has been serving as an editorial board member of several reputed journals.
 

 

Abstract:

In the contemporary consequence, nanoparticles have emerged as a novel antimicrobial agent due to their high surface area to volume ratio and the inimitable physicochemical properties. The emergence of multidrug resistant pathogens could unlock the potential of nanoparticles to combat infectious diseases. Over few years, nanoparticles have been associated with not only the physical and biological but also numerous pharmaceutical applications.  Metallic nanoparticles have a substantial scientific interest because of their distinctive physicochemical and antimicrobial properties. The aim of the current study is to enhance the antibacterial potential of purified bacteriocin by combining bacteriocin and antibacterial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Hence, the interaction of natural antimicrobial compounds and antibacterial nanoparticles can be used as a potential tool for combating infectious diseases. In this study, a green, simple and effective approach is used to synthesize antibacterial AgNPs using fungal exopolysaccharide as both a reducing and stabilizing agent. The Ag-NPs were characterized by spectroscopic analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Dynamic light scattering (DLS). Furthermore, the synergistic effect of bacteriocin-AgNPs was determined against pathogenic strains. The histogram of AgNPs indicated well-dispersed, stabilized and negatively charged particles with variable size distribution.  The combination of bacteriocin with nanoparticles found to be more effective due to broad antibacterial potential with possibly lower doses. The current study is imperative to provide an alternative for the chemical synthesis of silver nanoparticles. It showed environmental friendly and cost effective green synthesis of antibacterial nanoparticles.